GH-deficient prophet of pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1 (Prop1)(-/-) mice exhibited induced colon p53 levels, and cross-breeding them with Apc(min+/-) mice that normally develop intestinal and colon tumors resulted in GH-deficient double mutants with markedly decreased tumor number and size.
Data also suggest that interfering with the integrin α5β1 through the reactivation of p53 by Nutlin-3a may be of valuable interest as a new therapeutic option for colon tumors expressing high level of the integrin and a wild type p53.
Moreover, survival effects of CSNK1A1 together with p53 were also studied.Eighty-three formalin fixed paraffin embedded colon tumors were enriched for tumor cells using flow sorting, the extracted DNA was used in a custom SNP array to determine chr17p13-11 allelic state; p53 immunostaining, TP53 exons 5, 6, 7 and 8 mutations were determined in combination with mRNA expression analysis on frozen tissue.
Examination of miRNAs that were significantly differentially expressed at the 1.5-fold level by tumor phenotype showed 143 unique miRNAs differentially expression for microsatellite instability positive (MSI+) colon tumors; 129 unique miRNAs differentially expressed for CpG Island Methylator Phenotype positive (CIMP+) colon tumors; 135 miRNAs were differentially expressed for KRAS2-mutated colon tumors, and 139 miRNAs were differentially expressed for TP53-mutated colon tumors.
Proximal colon cancers are more likely than rectal and distal colon tumors to have microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, and Ki-ras mutations, whereas rectal and distal colon tumors are more likely than proximal colon tumors to have a p53 mutation.
Polymorphisms in some insulin-related genes are associated with an increased risk of colon cancer with specific KRAS2 and TP53 mutations, implying a link between these genetic changes and specific mutational pathways in carcinogenesis.
However, whereas this pathway is important in wild-type p53colon tumors, other pathways are also in operation because colon cancer cell lines in which the p53 gene is mutated are also affected by higher concentrations of WMC-79.