The findings suggested that patients with ALK rearrangements are more likely to be young, have EGFR wild-type, and more likely to exhibit mucus secretion, solid tumor growth, lymph node metastasis and pleural metastasis.
Primary tumors co-injected with MSCs expressed higher phospho-epidermal growth factor receptor (p-EGFR) and promoted metastasis development after tumor resection, effects that were abrogated by treatment with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, erlotinib.
Moreover, the alteration of MMP-2, MMP-9, TGF-β and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression, associated with the migration and metastasis potential of lung cancer cell lines, was identified by western blot analysis in transfected cells.
Phase II/III data however, from non-EGFR mutation enriched populations, have demonstrated no benefit in progression free or overall survival with the addition of erlotinib tometastasis directed radiotherapy.
We have recently shown that Nrdp1 inhibits phosphorylation of ErB3 in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, to suppress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling-stimulated MMP7 activation for CRC metastasis.
Our results showed that NCL expression in all 40 cases of ESCC tissues with metastasis was extensively located in the nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane (extra-nucleus), while NCL expression in all 20 cases of ESCC without metastasis was merely limited into the nucleus (intra-nucleus).The extra-nuclear NCL expression was positively correlated with the expression of EGFR, CXCR4 and Ki67 and serves as an independent prognostic factor for ESCC patients.
The development of these newer drugs, with efficacy after resistance to first-line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has led to exploration of these strategies in multiple disease settings: at resistance, in the first line, and in adjuvant treatment of those with completely resected early-stage disease who would otherwise die of recurrent/metastatic disease.
No significant differences were observed in the occurrence of EGFR gene mutations in primary tumors compared to metastases (7.9% vs. 11.2%; p=0.092), or in FFPE samples compared to cytological samples (8.9% vs. 8.1%; p=0.813).