This study further supports the evidence that MLL breakpoints in therapy-related acute leukemia with MLL-AFF1 are clustered in the telomeric half of the breakpoint cluster region that contains topo II recognition sites.
Activating mutations of class III receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) FLT3, PDGFR and KIT are associated with multiple human neoplasms including hematologic malignancies, for example: systemic mast cell disorders (KIT), non-CML myeloproliferative neoplasms (PDGFR) and subsets of acute leukemias (FLT3 and KIT).
Present studies show that LBH589, a novel cinnamic hydroxamic acid analog histone deacetylase inhibitor, induces acetylation of histone H3 and H4 and of heat shock protein 90 (hsp90), increases p21 levels, as well as induces cell-cycle G(1) phase accumulation and apoptosis of the human chronic myeloid leukemia blast crisis (CML-BC) K562 cells and acute leukemia MV4-11 cells with the activating length mutation of FLT-3.
A procedure for in-cell amplification of the hybrid BCR-ABL mRNA by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) without extraction of the nucleic acids was performed directly in fixed and permeabilized cells of leukemia patients (22 patients with Ph'-positive chronic myeloid leukaemia-CML and 1 with Ph'-positive acute leukaemia-AL, as well as 7 Ph'-negative cases) and Ph'-positive human leukaemia cell lines (K562, LAMA-84, BV173).
Translocations involving a breakpoint cluster region of the MLL gene at chromosome band 11q23 are the most common molecular abnormalities in acute leukemias of infants and acute leukemias related to chemotherapy with DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors.
We conclude that the FHIT gene and other uncharacterized tumour-suppressor genes at 3p14.2 are unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of acute leukaemia or progression of CML from chronic phase to blast crisis.
The temperature-sensitive p53Val135 mutant or the human wt-p53 cDNA was transduced in leukaemia cell lines representative of different acute leukaemia FAB subtypes, including M1 (KG1), M2 (HL-60), M3 (NB4), M5 (U937) and M6 (HEL 92.1.7), as well as blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukaemia (BC-CML: K562, BV173) showing diverse differentiation features.
Distribution of 11q23 breakpoints within the MLL breakpoint cluster region in de novo acute leukemia and in treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia: correlation with scaffold attachment regions and topoisomerase II consensus binding sites.
Here we report that the MLL/11q23 breakpoints in 13/13 patients with secondary leukemia map to the same breakpoint cluster region (bcr) noted in de novo MLL/11q23 acute leukemias and the presence of in vivo topoisomerase II inhibitor-induced cleavage sites in MLL/11q23 bcr.
The main differences relate to the presence of Ph-negative metaphases at diagnosis and the disappearance of Ph in complete remission in acute leukemia, and the localization of the chromosome breakpoints in the BCR gene, in the bcr segment in chronic leukemia and in the first intron of the BCR gene in 50% of acute leukemias.
These results suggest that the Ph1-positive and monosomy 7 AMLL in adults is de novo acute leukemia with both early B-lymphoid and myeloid phenotypes and may arise from malignant transformation of pluripotent stem cell, and expresses a heterogenous rearrangement pattern of the BCR gene.
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cannot be used to amplify the breakpoint in the chimaeric BCR-ABL gene in CML and acute leukaemias due to the large variation in the sites of breakpoint in the BCR gene (within a 5.8 kb region) and in the ABL gene (within a 150 kb region).
Although cytogenetically all pH chromosomes appear similar, the 22q11 breakpoints found in acute leukaemias are of two kinds, those within the major breakpoint cluster region (Mbcr-1) of the BCR gene as found in chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML), and those within the first intron of this gene.
The configuration of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH), T-cell receptor (TcR) beta and gamma chain regions, and the major breakpoint cluster region (M-bcr) genes were analysed in four cases of Ph' + acute leukemia (AL).
Abnormalities of megakaryocyte morphology, increases in the numbers of megakaryocytes, and normal to increased platelet counts are not uncommon in patients withacute leukemia and CML-B, and are not uniquely associated with changes involving chromosome 3.
The group consisted of 14 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast crisis (CML-BC) and eight with Ph-positive acute leukemia (Ph + AL); these diagnoses were based on hematologic and cytogenetic features.
Structural alterations of the BCR and ABL genes in Ph1 positive acute leukemias with rearrangements in the BCR gene first intron: further evidence implicating Alu sequences in the chromosome translocation.