Mutations in the PARK2 and PARK6 genes, coding for the cytosolic E3 ubiquitin protein ligase Parkin and the mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase PINK1 [phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1], lead to clinically similar early-onset Parkinsonian syndromes.
Other entities entailing dystonia-parkinsonism include dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome (SLC63 mutations); dopa-responsive dystonias; young-onset parkinsonism (PARKIN, PINK1 and DJ-1 mutations); PRKRA mutations; and X-linked TAF1 mutations, which rarely can also manifest in women.
The foot dystonia and gait disorders seen at disease onset in affected members of our family, which were accompanied by parkinsonism had a similar clinical presentation to what has been described in previous reports of PINK1 mutation carriers.
These results underscore the relevance of the PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitochondrial quality control pathway in primary neurons and shed further light on the underlying mechanisms of the PINK1 and Parkin pathogenic mutations that predispose Parkinsonism in vivo.
PINK1 and Parkin, the products of two genes responsible for autosomal recessive Parkinsonian syndromes with early onset, act as a quality control system on the outer mitochondrial membrane to preserve mitochondrial integrity.
Low doses of paraquat and polyphenols prolong life span and locomotor activity in knock-down parkin Drosophila melanogaster exposed to oxidative stress stimuli: implication in autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism.
The recessive Parkinsonism-linked genes PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin maintain mitochondrial integrity by regulating diverse aspects of mitochondrial function, including membrane potential, calcium homeostasis, cristae structure, respiratory activity, and mtDNA integrity.