Participants from five families with early-onset autosomal-dominant mutations (Swedish and Arctic APP, PSEN1 M146V, H163Y, and I143T) included 35 carriers (28 without dementia and 7 with) and 44 non-carriers.
Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, and is characterized by extracellular deposition of β-amyloid and intracellular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in the brain.
However, exome sequencing identified a missense mutation, N279K, in exon 10 of MAPT gene, verifying that the early parkinsonian symptoms in this family are caused by the genetic mutation for hereditary frontotemporal lobar dementia.
Mutations in Amyloid β Precursor Protein (APP) and in genes that regulate APP processing--such as PSEN1/2 and ITM2b/BRI2--cause familial dementia, such Familial Alzheimer disease (FAD), Familial Danish (FDD) and British (FBD) dementias.
The deposition of tau protein aggregates in the brain is a pathological hallmark of dementia; and the hippocampus, a brain structure known to be critical in processing learning and memory, is one of the first and most heavily affected regions.
Trisomy 21 and the consequent extra copy of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene and increased beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide production underlie the universal development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and high risk of AD dementia in people with Down syndrome (DS).
To investigate the effect of age, sex, APOE4 genotype, and lifestyle enrichment (education/occupation, midlife cognitive activity, and midlife physical activity) on Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarker trajectories using longitudinal imaging data (brain β-amyloid load via Pittsburgh compound B PET and neurodegeneration via (18)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET and structural MRI) in an elderly population without dementia.
Given the absence of PSEN1, PSEN2 and APP causative variants, we investigated whether these 260 patients might be burdened with protein-modifying variants in 20 genes that were previously shown to cause other types of dementia when mutated.
Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology.
Levels of Aβ(42) and PHF-τ in cerebral cortex were correlated more strongly in the Dementia group, and these measures had independent explanatory power for dementia beyond those of standard neuropathologic indices.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia in the elderly, is characterized by two neuropathological hallmarks: senile plaques, which are composed of Aβ peptides, and neurofibrillary tangles, which are composed of hyperphosphorylated TAU protein.
The cluster-derived normal group had significantly fewer APOE ε4 carriers and fewer who progressed to dementia compared with the other subtypes; they also evidenced cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer's disease biomarker profiles that did not differ from the normative reference group.
MCI participants diagnosed via neuropsychological criteria yielded dissociable cognitive phenotypes, significant CSF AD biomarker associations, more stable diagnoses, and identified greater percentages of participants who progressed to dementia than conventional MCI diagnostic criteria.
The levels of miR‑193b, exosomal miR‑193b, Aβ, tau, p‑tau, HCY and APOE in samples from APP/PS1 double‑transgenic mice, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia of Alzheimer‑type (DAT) patients, were measured.