One patient's symptoms suggest an extension of the known spectrum of MECP2 associated phenotypes to include global developmental delay with obsessive compulsive disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) testing is indicated for patients with numerous clinical presentations, including Rett syndrome (classic and atypical), unexplained neonatal encephalopathy, Angelman syndrome, nonspecific mental retardation, autism (females), and an X-linked family history of developmental delay.
Rett syndrome (RS) is an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in MECP2 (Xq28) and characterized by normal development until 6-12 months of age, followed by regression with loss of acquired skills, gradual onset of microcephaly, stereotypic hand movements and psychomotor delay.
Although the etiology of the infections is not understood, we recommend considering MECP2 dosage studies and a genetics referral in individuals with severe developmental delay and neurologic findings, especially when a history of recurrent respiratory ailments has been documented.
This report supports broadening the phenotype of patients who should be considered for MECP2 mutation analysis to include cases of developmental delay and hypotonia without evidence of an initial period of normal development.
The mechanism of pathogenesis contributing significantly to our patient's clinical findings may relate to interaction between TOP3B and fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an mRNA-binding protein that regulates translation and is altered in fragile X syndrome, a condition involving developmental delay, learning disability, and autism.
A literature review revealed rare cases with similar deletions that included IDS and FMR1 in females with developmental delay, variable features of Hunter syndrome, and skewed X-inactivation of the normal X chromosome.
In addition, we find that there is a 9‑fold greater likelihood of detecting clinically significant chromosomal aberrations than of detecting a full Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene CGG repeat expansion in cases referred on the basis of DD.
Mutations in the CDKL5 (cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5) gene are associated with a severe epileptic encephalopathy (early infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 2, EIEE2) characterized by early-onset intractable seizures, infantile spasms, severe developmental delay, intellectual disability, and Rett syndrome (RTT)-like features.
In the last few years, the X-linked serine/threonine kinase cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) has been associated with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies characterized by the manifestation of intractable epilepsy within the first weeks of life, severe developmental delay, profound hypotonia, and often the presence of some Rett-syndrome-like features.
Genetic mutations of the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5) have been reported in patients with epileptic encephalopathy, which is characterized by intractable seizures and severe-to-profound developmental delay.
Interestingly these missense mutations that result in a mislocalisation of the CDKL5 protein are associated with severe developmental delay which was apparent within the first months of life characterised by early and generalised hypotonia, and autistic features, and as well as early infantile spasms.