Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the anti-proliferation effect of GEN-27 in vitro and the prevention of CAC in vivo is mediated by p65-CDX2-β-catenin axis via inhibiting β-catenin target genes.
Previously, we identified the neural immunoglobulin-like adhesion receptor L1 as a Wnt/β-catenin target gene localized in cells at the invasive front of CRC tissue and showed that L1 expression in CRC cells confers enhanced motility and liver metastasis.
The quantitative level of the β-catenin protein was significantly decreased in the CRC cell lysates, hence the expression level of c-Myc and cyclin D1 was significantly decreased following 2.5mM CaLa treatment.
Additionally, depletion of LGR5 suppressed β-catenin nuclear translocation and blocked the activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling as manifested in the reduced expression of c-myc and cyclin D, two Wnt/β-catenin targets in CRC cells.
Histo-pathological features and molecular changes [KRAS, BRAF and CTNNB1 genes mutations, microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype, expression of mismatch repair (MMR) and mucin (MUC) 5AC proteins, mutation and expression analysis of TP53, MLH1 promoter hypermethylation analysis] were examined in a series of 51 unselected Tunisian CRC patients, 10 of them had a proven or probable hereditary disease, on the track of new tumoral markers for CRC susceptibility in Tunisian patients.
Furthermore, the expression levels of hSETD1A are positively correlated with H3K4me3 enrichment at the promoters of Wnt/β-catenin target genes and the aberrant activation of these genes in human colorectal cancer.
SPDEF inhibited the expression of β-catenin-target genes in mouse colon tumors, and interacted with β-catenin to block its transcriptional activity in CRC cell lines, resulting in lower levels of cyclin D1 and c-MYC.
Although the number of mutations in the APC and β-catenin genes in our CRC cases was very low, the study confirms the role of epigenetic gene silencing of the pivotal molecular gladiator, APC, of the Wnt pathway in the development of CRC in the Kashmiri population.
The paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) gene encodes a transcription factor controlled by the WNT/Dvl/CTNNB1 and Hedgehog/TGFB pathways in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC).