We highlight the conventional mechanisms of drug resistance elicited by the complex heterogeneous microenvironment of NSCLC during targeted therapy, including mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), the receptor tyrosine kinase ROS proto-oncogene 1 (ROS1), and the serine/threonine-protein kinase BRAF (v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B).
Our findings showed important roles of phosphorylation activation of AKT and ERK and potential interplay and cooperation between NF-κB and HIF-1α in PD-L1 expression regulation by EGFR mutants in NSCLC.
Collectively, our results, both <i>in vivo</i> and <i>in vitro</i>, demonstrate that BBD leads to autophagic cell death through downregulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and improved the antitumor effects of cisplatin in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Mechanistically, we found that circFGFR3 promoted NSCLC cell invasion and proliferation via competitively combining with miR-22-3p to facilitate the galectin-1 (Gal-1), p-AKT, and p-ERK1/2 expressions.
The present findings suggested that treatment with pemetrexed may exhibit synergistic effects with PTEN on lung cancer cells via the inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and through carbohydrate metabolism, and treatment with pemetrexed combined with PTEN overexpression may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of NSCLC.
We have conducted this study to check the effect of VCN-2 on the cell viability and the effect on PTEN (Phosphatase and tensin homolog), PI3KCA (Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-biphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform/PI3K 110α subunit), and Akt1 when VCN-2 was used alone and in combination with radiation in the NSCLC cell line NCI-H23 (H23).