In this first study in humans to examine the joint effects of prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures, we report that GR gene (NR3C1) 1-F promoter methylation in infants is elevated in the presence of increased maternal postnatal depression following low prenatal depression, and that this effect is reversed by self-reported stroking of the infants by their mothers over the first weeks of life.
In addition, six glucocorticoid receptor pathway genes (Slc22a5, Aqp1, Stat5a, Ampd3, Plekhf1, and Cyb561) were upregulated in GF mice, and of these only two (Stat5a and Ampd3) were upregulated in LPS-treated mice, whereas the shared gene, Stat5a, was downregulated in "depression microbiota" recipient mice.
In the context of environmental stress, a functional variant in the glucocorticoid receptor co-chaperone FKBP5 gene has been repeatedly shown to increase risk for psychiatric illness, including depression.
APPL2 Tg mice displayed higher GR activity and less capacity of neurogenesis at olfactory system with less olfactory sensitivity than WT mice, indicating that APPL2 could be a potential therapeutic target for depression and olfactory deficits.
In this study, we tested the leukocyte mRNA expression levels of genes belonging to glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function (FKBP-4, FKBP-5, and GR), inflammation (interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, macrophage inhibiting factor (MIF), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α), and neuroplasticity (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), p11 and VGF), in healthy controls (n=34) and depressed patients (n=74), before and after 8 weeks of treatment with escitalopram or nortriptyline, as part of the Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression study.
Glucocorticoid receptor dysfunction orchestrates inflammasome effects on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-induced depression: A potential mechanism underlying the cross talk between lung and brain.
In a cross-sectional genetic association study of 526 white outpatients with chronic coronary heart disease, we examined whether haplotypes of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) are associated with depression.
Conclusively: (1) depression in females may result from a gene × childhood-adversity interaction and/or a dysregulated epigenetic programming of MAOA; (2) childhood-adversity subtypes may differentially impact DNA methylation at NR3C1; (3) baseline MAOA-genotypic variations may affect the extent of NR3C1 methylation.
Pain and depressive-like behavior were measured over 14 days and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; a factor involved in nociception and depression) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR; a stress-related receptor) expression were measured on day 14.
Using high throughput technologies for the identification of genes regulated by glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and MR in brain areas responsible for specific symptoms of stress-related disorders will yield potential new drug targets for the treatment of depression and anxiety.