Poisson regression with robust variance adjusted by gender, tobacco use, self-perceived stress, leisure activity, suicidal ideation, low cortisol levels and NR3C1 DNA methylation was performed and predicted risk factors for depression.
Glucocorticoid receptor dysfunction orchestrates inflammasome effects on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-induced depression: A potential mechanism underlying the cross talk between lung and brain.
Pain and depressive-like behavior were measured over 14 days and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; a factor involved in nociception and depression) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR; a stress-related receptor) expression were measured on day 14.
Considering possible confounding effects of alcohol and/or depression, we conclude that chronic cocaine use is associated with lower NR3C1 gene expression suggesting possible direct effects of the drug on the biological adaptation of stress-related genes.
Studies investigating Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR/NR3C1) in the brain have primarily focused on the forebrain, however in recent years, the hindbrain has become a region of interest for research into the development of anxiety and depression, though the role of GR signalling in the hindbrain remains poorly characterised.
In addition, six glucocorticoid receptor pathway genes (Slc22a5, Aqp1, Stat5a, Ampd3, Plekhf1, and Cyb561) were upregulated in GF mice, and of these only two (Stat5a and Ampd3) were upregulated in LPS-treated mice, whereas the shared gene, Stat5a, was downregulated in "depression microbiota" recipient mice.
APPL2 Tg mice displayed higher GR activity and less capacity of neurogenesis at olfactory system with less olfactory sensitivity than WT mice, indicating that APPL2 could be a potential therapeutic target for depression and olfactory deficits.
Combining both models resulted in 22 new and confirmed HSP90-independent NR3C1 inhibitors, providing two scaffolds (i.e., pyrimidine and pyrazolo-pyrimidine), which could potentially be of interest in the treatment of depression (i.e., inhibiting the glucocorticoid receptor (i.e., NR3C1), while leaving its chaperone, HSP90, unaffected).
We argue that better understanding the long-term effects of developmental stressors on PFC trkB, GR, and related factors may yield insights into risk for chronic, remitting depression and related neuropsychiatric illnesses.
The results do not support the hypothesis that GR dysregulation is aetiopathogenic in CFS and suggest that current and future endocrine cross-sectional studies in CFS may be vulnerable to the confounding influence of childhood trauma which is likely increased by comorbid depression.
In the context of environmental stress, a functional variant in the glucocorticoid receptor co-chaperone FKBP5 gene has been repeatedly shown to increase risk for psychiatric illness, including depression.