Obesity rats induced by 8-week high fat diet (HFD) were randomly divided into obesity group (OB) and exercised obesity group (EOB) with 8 rats each group, and 40 diabetes rats established by 8-week HFD plus low dose of streptozotocin were randomly divided into 4 groups: diabetes group (DM), exercised diabetes group (EDM), exercised diabetes plus PPARγ agonist pioglitazone group (EDP), and exercised diabetes plus PPARγ antagonist GW9662 group (EDG).
Interestingly, it also modulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1).Our findings showed that <i>A. annulatum</i> and its bioactive compounds are capable of improving insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells.This suggests that <i>A. annulatum</i> can be used as a therapeutic agent to treat diabetes.
Loss-of-function mutations in PPARG result in familial partial lipodystrophy subtype 3 (FPDL3), a rare condition characterized by aberrant adipose tissue distribution and severe metabolic complications, including diabetes.
Synthetic PPAR ligands are widely used in the treatment of dyslipidemia (e.g. fibrates - PPARα activators) or in diabetes mellitus (e.g. thiazolidinediones - PPARγ agonists) while a new generation of dual agonists reveals hypolipemic, hypotensive, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant action.
The thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists has restricted clinical use for diabetes mellitus due to fluid retention and potential cardiovascular risks.
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) is an important sensor at the crossroad of diabetes, obesity, immunity and cancer as it regulates adipogenesis, metabolism, inflammation and proliferation.
We prospectively enrolled multi-centre ESRD patients of Han Chinese origin between 2002 and 2003, recording their antioxidant (superoxide dismutase [SOD2], glutathione peroxidase [GPX1]) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) genotyping results, and stratified based on DM.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a master regulator of adipogenesis and a target of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of antidiabetic drugs; therefore, identifying novel regulators of PPARγ action in adipocytes is essential for the future development of therapeutics for diabetes.