However, in the condition called "oxidative stress", HOCl has the capability to attack many important biomolecules such as amino acids, proteins, nucleotides, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids; these reactions could ultimately contribute to a number of diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases (AD, PD, and ALS), cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes.
BF percentage, serum PAB and serum hs-CRP were significantly higher in individuals with metabolic syndrome and diabetes versus those without metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus (P < 0.05), however serum SOD1 was significantly lower in individuals with metabolic syndrome (P < 0.005).
NAC, given after the establishment of diabetes, may offer protection against the risk for stroke by altering both systemic and vascular prothrombotic responses via enhancing platelet GSH, and GSH-dependent MG elimination, as well as correcting levels of antioxidants such as SOD1 and GPx-1.
ASE reduced oxidative damage markers (TBARS, carbonyl levels and 8-isoprostane) in D and DH associated with a decrease in Nox 4 and p47 subunit expression and increase in antioxidant enzyme activity in both groups (SOD, catalase and GPx).
As compared to the control group, diabetes caused degenerative changes in the cerebellum with significant elevation of MDA and decrease of SOD levels and gliosis confirmed by increase the GFAP expression area fraction.
In the current studies, parameters of glomerular injury were examined in hemizygous nondiabetic transgenic mice (SOD) and streptozotocin-diabetic (D) transgenic mice (D-SOD), which overexpress human cytoplasmic Cu2+/Zn2+ superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), and in corresponding wild-type littermates (WT, D-WT) after 4 months of diabetes.