In such a case, it is important to develop pharmacological interventions that directly restore plasma insulin levels, insulin receptor function, and hexokinase activity, thereby avoiding damage to neural tissue that is associated with cognitive deficits in diabetic patients, particularly patients with type-2 diabetes.
Insulin resistance and glucose dysmetabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are related with the polymorphisms in the genes encoding the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, especially Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphism being reported to be associated with type-2 diabetes and PCOS.
We have recently examined the exons encoding the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase domain and GLUT 4 in 30 subjects with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus using a molecular scanning approach.
We therefore characterized restriction-fragment-length polymorphisms of the insulin-receptor gene with the restriction enzyme Rsa 1 in 242 Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic Whites with type II diabetes and 202 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched control subjects who participated in a population-based study in San Antonio.
The aim of our study was to investigate whether common polymorphisms in the genes regulating the early insulin signalling pathway (insulin; A-23T, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor [IGF-1R]; GAG1013GAA, plasma cell membrane glycoprotein 1 [PC-1]; K121Q, insulin receptor substrate [IRS-1]; G972R, insulin receptor substrate 2 [IRS-2]; G1057D and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85 alpha [PI3K]; M326I) affect the weight change and development of Type 2 diabetes in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.
In conclusion, diabetes mellitus per se does not alter the expression of IR isoforms in the liver and skeletal muscle, and therefore, at least in this animal model of NIDDM, impaired insulin action develops independently from a relative increase in IR36+ mRNA expression in skeletal muscle.
These data indicate that the region of the insulin receptor gene coding for the intracellular portion of the beta-subunit is highly polymorphic and that polymorphisms surrounding specific exons can be identified by denaturing gradient gel blotting, but there is no evidence that variation at this locus contributes to NIDDM susceptibility in most individuals.
This review will focus on the structural and functional heterogeneity of the insulin receptor, and will discuss the pathogenetic role of insulin receptor variant forms and polymorphisms in the development of the common form of type 2 diabetes.
Messenger RNA and protein expression for HMGA1 and INSR were measured in both peripheral lymphomonocytes and cultured Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblasts from patients with type 2 DM and controls.
Identification of a mutation in the insulin receptor gene in a patient with a moderate degree of insulin resistance associated with morbid obesity suggests that insulin receptor mutations may exist in patients with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus associated with a moderate degree of insulin resistance.
Although no significant association of restriction fragment length polymorphism with Type 2 diabetes was found in the present study, our results suggest that the restriction fragment length polymorphism in the human insulin receptor gene varies among ethnic groups, and that the restriction fragment length polymorphism linked to the human insulin receptor gene might be a useful marker for the linkage study of the genes located close to the human insulin receptor gene on chromosome 19.
To investigate the potential of the technique for screening many patients, the 5 exons that encode the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor were examined in 30 unrelated white subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).