Because NIDDM is heterogeneous and perhaps polygenic in nature, these linkage analyses in families with NIDDM can be extended to other genes when they are cloned such as that coding for the insulin receptor.
Although no significant association of restriction fragment length polymorphism with Type 2 diabetes was found in the present study, our results suggest that the restriction fragment length polymorphism in the human insulin receptor gene varies among ethnic groups, and that the restriction fragment length polymorphism linked to the human insulin receptor gene might be a useful marker for the linkage study of the genes located close to the human insulin receptor gene on chromosome 19.
We conclude that the tyrosine kinase activity of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor is defective in obesity and Type 2 diabetes, and that this alteration contributes to the insulin-resistant characteristics of both disorders.
A genetic analysis of diabetic and non-diabetic Punjabi Sikhs (n = 164) was made for markers of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus using insulin receptor, insulin, and HLA-D alpha chain gene probes.
We therefore characterized restriction-fragment-length polymorphisms of the insulin-receptor gene with the restriction enzyme Rsa 1 in 242 Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic Whites with type II diabetes and 202 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched control subjects who participated in a population-based study in San Antonio.
The analysis of the INSR locus revealed "protective" haplotypes, and it may be possible to use two of the INSR haplotypes as genetic markers to identify individuals having a very low probability of developing NIDDM regardless of the presence of other genes conferring susceptibility to this disorder.
Because the nature and location of the insertion did not suggest a role in insulin-receptor function, the association of this RFLP with NIDDM and hyperinsulinemia was reexamined in a small sample of Whites.
We investigated intracellular processing of the insulin-receptor complex in monocytes from 12 healthy control subjects, 11 obese nondiabetic subjects, and 13 obese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) by measuring receptor internalization, recovery of cell-surface insulin binding after receptor internalization, and the release of intracellular intact insulin (insulin retroendocytosis).
To investigate the potential of the technique for screening many patients, the 5 exons that encode the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor were examined in 30 unrelated white subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).
The significance of insulin receptor gene variants in the aetiology of Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus has been investigated by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in a genetically homogeneous Swedish population.
From these studies, we conclude that the insulin resistance seen in the great majority of subjects with the common form of NIDDM is not due to genetic variation in the coding sequence of the IR beta subunit, nor to any single mutation in the GLUT-4 gene.
In an attempt to elucidate whether structural defects in the insulin receptor could be a primary cause of insulin resistance in NIDDM, we analyzed the insulin-receptor cDNA sequence in a subject with NIDDM who is also homozygous for this RFLP.
We have recently examined the exons encoding the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase domain and GLUT 4 in 30 subjects with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus using a molecular scanning approach.