Considering a strong association between HNF4A deregulation and increased risk of T2DM, our findings suggest that HNF4α may act as a critical converging point linking hyperprocoagulant condition to VEGF resistance in diabetic ECs, and repression of FLK1 expression by thrombin-induced HNF4α mediates, at least partially, the vascular dysfunction caused by T2DM.
Mean C-peptide at diagnosis was higher for HNF4A-MODY than for T1D (1.8 vs 0.9 ng/mL; P < 0.01); 36.4% of patients with HNF4A-MODY and 65.7% of patients with HNF1B-MODY were treated with insulin, whereas 20.5% and 8.6% received oral antidiabetics only (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 vs T2D).
Most (6/7) patients with HNF4A variants rapidly failed TODAY treatment across study arms (hazard ratio = 5.03, P = 0.0002), while none with GCK variants failed treatment.ConclusionThe finding of 4.5% of patients with monogenic diabetes in an overweight/obese cohort of children and adolescents with T2D suggests that monogenic diabetes diagnosis should be considered in children and adolescents without diabetes-associated autoantibodies and maintained C-peptide, regardless of BMI, as it may direct appropriate clinical management.
We report that the HMG20A (rs7178572) and HNF4A (rs4812829) variants that have previously shown a strong association with T2DM in Asian Indians also contributes significant risk to GDM in this population.
The T2DM association in FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A (rs3212183; P = .0002; OR = 1.19 [1.09-1.30]) was independent from the East Asian lead SNP (rs6017317), which did not associate with T2DM in American Indians.
The results confirm that MODY is under-diagnosed, particularly in individuals presenting with early onset diabetes and clinically labeled as type 2 diabetes; thus, sequencing of all monogenic diabetes genes should be routinely considered in such individuals.
Considering a strong association between human HNF4A polymorphisms and increased risk of type 2 diabetes our current findings suggest that downregulation of AGXT2 and subsequent impairment in metabolism of dimethylarginines and BAIB caused by HNF4α deficiency might contribute to development of cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients.
The four polymorphisms, rs4810424, rs1884613, rs1884614 and rs2144908, in the HNF‑4α gene were not the susceptible loci for type 2 diabetes in the Bai population of Dali city, however, the haplotype, CCTA, built from the four SNPs may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes in this population.