In this report, we performed Meta analysis to investigate the association between four kinds of MMP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, MMP1 -1607 1G/2G, MMP3 -1171 5A/6A, MMP9 -1562 C/T, MMP12 -82 A/G) and COPD risk from 21 studies including 4184 cases and 5716 controls.
When stratified by ethnicity, results indicated MMP-1 -1607G/GG (recessive model: G/G vs G/GG+GG/GG; OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01-1.44; p = 0.04) and MMP-9 -1562 C/T (dominant model; OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.01-2.71; p = 0.04) were correlated with COPD susceptibility among Caucasians and Asians respectively.
We also found that the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-predisposing TRPV4P19S variant enhances Ca2+ influx and MMP 1 activation, providing mechanistic linkage between man-made air pollution and human airway disease.
In contrast, 8/12 genes (early growth response factor 1, MMP1, MMP9, MMP10, plasminogen activator urokinase, plasminogen activator urokinase receptor, tumor necrosis factor, and IL13) increased and 4/12 (MMP2, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1, collagen 1alpha1, and transforming growth factor-beta3) decreased in the surrounding lung tissue in association with progression of COPD.
To investigate the association of 3 polymorphisms of MMP genes (MMP-1 -1607G-->GG, MMP-9 -1562C-->T and MMP-12 N357S), which have been reported to be associated with COPD-related phenotypes, with the risk of COPD in a Korean population.
<b>Areas covered</b>: The most relevant features of preclinical models of COPD, namely chronic exposure to CS and other agents (proteases and microorganisms), cardiovascular effects, surfactant protein-D, airway remodeling and inflammation, lung regeneration potential and mesenchymal stromal cell therapy are described.
High surfactant protein D (SP-D) concentrations in cord blood of IUGR foetuses/neonates could point to structural lung immaturity, resulting to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adult life.