Gastric cancer (GC) is considered to be one of the leading cancers in East Asians, and mutations in the CDH1 gene and the reduced expression of E-cadherin are the most frequent genetic alterations in gastric cancer.
Large meta-analyses confirmed the association between IL8, IL10, TNF-b, TP53 and PSCA, while genetic variation at different genes such as XPG, PLCE1, HFE, ERCC5, EZH2, DOC2, CYP19A1, ALDH2, and CDH1 have been reported to be associated with GC risk.
The panel felt that it is appropriate for patients with DGC to have CDH1 mutation testing in a family with (1) ≥2 cases of GC, with at least one case of DGC diagnosed before age of 50 years; (2) ≥3 cases of GC diagnosed at any age, one or more of which is DGC; (3) a patient diagnosed with DGC and lobular breast carcinoma; or (4) patients diagnosed with DGC under age of 35 years.
59 GCs, 59 first degree relatives (FDRs) of GC, 20 autoimmune metaplastic atrophic gastritis (AMAGs) and 52 blood donors (BDs) were analyzed for CDH1 by direct sequencing, structural modelling and bioinformatics.
A great number of genes with promoter methylation have been observed in gastric cancer (GC), among which p16INK4A (p16), Mut L homologue 1 (MLH1), Epithelial-cadherin (E-cadherin), Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A) and Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) have been extensively studied.
This case highlights the importance of recognition of the HDGC syndrome and of testing for CDH1 germline mutations in young individuals with diffuse gastric cancer without a family history of the disease.
In conclusion, our results indicated that plasma CDH1 levels may serve as a risk marker against gastric cancer and variant genotypes of rs26160 and rs17690554 may contribute to the etiology of diffuse gastric cancer in this study.
This data could open new approaches in the gastric cancer prevention test; before proposing a proband candidate for the CDH1 genetic screening, geographic variability, alongside the family history should be considered.