Notably, the addition of trastuzumab to first-line chemotherapy has improved the overall survival of patients with HER2-positive gastric cancer, and has become the standard-of-care treatment for this group of patients.
Trastuzumab in combination with paclitaxel enhances antitumor activity by promoting apoptosis in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive trastuzumab-resistant gastric cancer xenograft models.
HER2-ECD (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 - extracellular domain) is a prominent therapeutic target validated for treating HER2-positive breast and gastric cancer, but HER2-specific therapeutic options for treating advanced gastric cancer remain limited.
PD-L1 membrane expression on tumour cells (TC) and infiltrating immune cells (IC), CD3 + T-lymphocytes, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, ATM and HER2 were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the ACRG (Asian Cancer Research Group) GC cohort (N = 380).
Therefore, d16HER2 may be considered as a "flag" of HER2 dependence in GC and can be clinically investigated as a marker of trastuzumab susceptibility in several other HER2-driven cancers, including CRC.
Gastric cancer (GC) has also been slow to benefit from biomarker discovery and development and the successful utilisation of targeted therapies, with the exception of trastuzumab in HER2 positive cancers.
After phase III clinical trials, trastuzumab, anti-Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (commonly known as ERBB2) and ramucirumab, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (commonly known as VEGFR2) monoclonal antibodies, were approved and introduced into first- and second-line therapies for patients with advanced/metastatic GC.