In this chapter we will review literatures describing the functional organization of the AgRP circuit and its correlative signaling components that influence ingestive, foraging, motivational, and cognitive responses, a framework that reshaped our thinking toward the new hope and challenges in treatment of obesity and eating disorders.
In multivariable analysis, the greatest risk factor for developing obesity was the use of an INSTI as the primary ART core drug (adjusted HR 7.12, P < 0.0001); other risk factors included younger age, female sex, higher baseline BMI, lower baseline CD4+ T lymphocyte count, higher baseline HIV-1 RNA, hypertension and diabetes mellitus.
The aim of this survey is to evaluate the association of genetic variants of melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), apolipoprotein E (APOE) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) with obesity in the North Indian population.
Increasing our understanding of how αMSH and AgRP act on dopamine pathways to affect behavior may allow for identification of new strategies to combat disorders involving dysfunction of dopamine pathways, such as obesity and drug abuse.
Interestingly, Gpr83 knock-out mice have normal body weight and glucose tolerance when fed a regular chow diet, but are protected from obesity and glucose intolerance when challenged with a high-fat diet, despite hyperphagia and increased hypothalamic expression of agouti-related protein, Npy, Hcrt and Ghsr1a.
The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic variability of AGRP gene and investigate whether the previously reported SNP rs5030980 and the rs11575892, a SNP that so far has not been studied with respect to obesity is associated with increased body mass index (BMI).
While forced activation of hypothalamic IKKbeta/NF-kappaB interrupts central insulin/leptin signaling and actions, site- or cell-specific suppression of IKKbeta either broadly across the brain or locally within the mediobasal hypothalamus, or specifically in hypothalamic AGRP neurons significantly protects against obesity and glucose intolerance.
By contrast, although there was the expected increase in both NPY and AGRP expression in obese 14-week-old ZF rats, the expression of NPY and AGRP was decreased in 6-week-old obese ZDF rats with hyperinsulinaemia and in 14-week-old rats with the additional hyperglycaemia.
The currently available data suggest that elevated AGRP mRNA along with reduced proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA is associated with many types of obesity and agents antagonizing the effect of AGRP may be a potential therapeutic target in treating obesity and obesity-associated disorders in which endogenous hypothalamic AGRP is elevated.