Among the gastrointestinal hormones, the incretins: glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 have attracted interest because of their importance for the development and therapy of type 2 diabetes and obesity.
A synthetic monomeric peptide triple receptor agonist, termed "Triagonist" that incorporates glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon (Gcg) actions, was previously developed to improve upon metabolic and glucose regulatory benefits of single and dual receptor agonists in rodent models of diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, and phentermine, a psychostimulant structurally related to amphetamine, are drugs approved for the treatment of obesity and hyperphagia.
The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effect of a single dose of a novel delayed-release nutrient (DRN) on glucose, GLP-1, c-peptide, insulin, and appetite in adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Enteroendocrine L-cell derived peptide hormones, notably glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), have become important targets in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, obesity and intestinal diseases.
A dual incretin receptor agonist designed to co-activate GLP-1 and GIP receptors was recently shown to elicit robust improvements of glycemic control (mean haemoglobin A1c reduction of 1.94%) and massive body weight loss (mean weight loss of 11.3 kg) after 26 weeks of treatment with the highest dose (15 mg once weekly) in a clinical trial including overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes.
Larger interventional studies are needed to establish the role of preconception intervention with GLP-1 based therapies, assessing fertility outcomes in obesity, PCOS, and diabetes-related fertility problems.
However, independent of lipid loads, GMET and OCTT were slower (GMET<sub>lipid</sub> P = 0.046; GMET<sub>water</sub> P = 0.003; OCTT P = 0.001), and basal and postload secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was attenuated ( P = 0.045 and P = 0.048, respectively) in men with severe obesity compared with men without obesity.