Nonetheless, interrogation of the GIP/GIPR axis on cardiac function in humans will involve the systemic actions of the GIPR within the myocardium and other systems (e.g. adipose tissue, vasculature), which will influence the long-term future of GIPR modification for the treatment of obesity/T2DM.
This review will discuss the physiological effects of GIP on fat metabolism in human adipose and other non-adipose tissues such as liver, pancreas, skeletal muscle and heart, describe where the actions of GIP may contribute to the pathophysiology of obesity, T2D and NAFLD and finally describe the therapeutic implications of GIP antagonism and agonism in these conditions.
Lastly, we discuss how dysmetabolic conditions such as obesity and type 2 diabetes may shift the actions of GIP in an atherogenic direction, and we provide a perspective on the therapeutic potential of GIP receptor agonism and antagonism in cardiovascular diseases.
Recent studies with a GIP receptor antagonist suitable for human studies have confirmed these concepts regarding the actions of endogenous GIP and point to potential beneficial metabolic effects of GIP receptor antagonists rather than agonist in the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
A synthetic monomeric peptide triple receptor agonist, termed "Triagonist" that incorporates glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon (Gcg) actions, was previously developed to improve upon metabolic and glucose regulatory benefits of single and dual receptor agonists in rodent models of diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Among the gastrointestinal hormones, the incretins: glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 have attracted interest because of their importance for the development and therapy of type 2 diabetes and obesity.
Ambiguity regarding the role of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in obesity arises from conflicting reports asserting that both GIP receptor (GIPR) agonism and antagonism are effective strategies for inhibiting weight gain.
Given the established roles of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in promoting fat storage and bone formation, we assessed the contribution of GIP to obesity and osteopenia in ovariectomized mice with a gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) inserted into the GIP locus, in which GIP was either reduced (GIP<sup>gfp/+</sup> ) or absent (GIP<sup>gfp/gfp</sup> ).
A dual incretin receptor agonist designed to co-activate GLP-1 and GIP receptors was recently shown to elicit robust improvements of glycemic control (mean haemoglobin A1c reduction of 1.94%) and massive body weight loss (mean weight loss of 11.3 kg) after 26 weeks of treatment with the highest dose (15 mg once weekly) in a clinical trial including overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes.
Augmentation of glucose mediated insulin release, the incretin effect, was discovered soon after GIP was first isolated and only much later was its important role in the pathogenesis of obesity, through mechanism other than insulin secretion, appreciated.
To investigate the effects of the novel glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) analogue, ZP4165, on body weight and glycaemic control in rodents, and to investigate if ZP4165 modulates the anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycaemic effects of a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist (liraglutide).
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor (GIPR) has been identified in multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS) as a contributor to obesity, and GIPR knockout mice are protected against diet-induced obesity (DIO).