We critically summarize emerging biological mechanisms linking obesity to cancer encompassing insulin resistance and abnormalities of the IGF-I system and signaling; sex hormones biosynthesis and pathway; subclinical chronic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress; alterations in adipokine pathophysiology; factors deriving from ectopic fat deposition; microenvironment and cellular perturbations including vascular perturbations, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, endoplasmic reticulum stress and migrating adipose progenitor cells; disruption of circadian rhythms; dietary nutrients; factors with potential significance such as the altered intestinal microbiome; and mechanic factors in obesity and cancer.
Obesity is associated with reduced spontaneous and stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion and basal insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) levels-which in turn is associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors.
This study examined the effects cGP treatment on synaptic expression and their association with IGF-1, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-2 and cGP concentrations in the brain of rats with high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity.
Cross-sectional associations were observed between IHTG and IGF1 (β = -0.51; 95% CI, -0.82 to -0.20), IGFBP1 (β = -4.2; 95% CI, -7.7 to -0.7), and FGF21 (β = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.9) in lean men and men with abdominal obesity combined.
We conclude that 1) GH signaling is normal in obesity, 2) in the obese state, the preservation of IGF-I with fasting and the augmented GH-induced central insulin resistance indicate increased hepatic GH sensitivity, 3) blunted GH levels in obesity may protect against insulin resistance without compromising IGF-I status.
We analysed the levels of cytokines (tumour necrosis factor [TNF] α and interleukins [ILs] 1β, 4, 6 and 10), chemokines (stromal cell derived factor 1α, monocyte chemoattract protein [MCP] 1, eotaxin and fractalkine) and growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, pro-fibrotic platelet-derived growth factor [PDGF-BB] and insulin-like growth factor 1) in serum of prepubertal children with obesity (61 girls/59 boys, 50% IR and 50% non-IR) and 32 controls.
Obesity-induced high levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 in the stem cell niche are found to impact proliferation in rodents indicating that insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors may play a role in modulating intestinal epithelial stem cell proliferation.
Together, these results suggest that obesity enhances local invasion of breast cancer cells through increased expression of IGF-1 by mammary ASCs, and weight loss may reverse this tumor-promoting phenotype.
A cross-sectional study compared plasma concentration of cGP, IGF-1 and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 in women with obesity and/or hypertension to normal controls 6-year postpartum using UPLC-MS and ELISA.
Our findings suggest that IGF-I/IR genetic variants interact with obesity, physical activity, and exogenous E, altering postmenopausal CRC risk, through IGF-I/IR traits, but also through different pathways.
In conclusion, this study shows the existence of a high prevalence of GH-IGF-1 dysfunction in patients with both FM and obesity, presumably as a consequence of the obese rather than fibromyalgic condition.
This approach revealed that most of the components of the GH/insulin/IGF1 regulatory axis are present in PGs, where their expression pattern is altered under obesity conditions and after an acute insulin treatment (e.g.
Moreover, the novel finding of this study is that while IGF-1 receptor-mediated Akt activation contributes to cardiac hypertrophy, it is not involved in mTOR activation and autophagy suppression in obesity and T2DM.