The presence of obesity at ≥ 2 follow-ups showed the highest mean values (SE) for IL-6 [2.45 (1.05)] and CRP [3.74 (1.11)] and the lowest mean value for adiponectin [8.60 (0.37)] (adjusted analyses, females) compared with other exposures; the highest mean of IL-6 [1.65 (1.05)] and CRP [1.78 (1.11)] and the lowest mean of adiponectin [9.98 (0.38)] were for the number of follow-ups with ≥2 exposures compared to those with no exposures at any follow-up (adjusted analyses, females).
In addition to a diet-induced obesity model, we also examined the role of adipocyte-derived IL-6 in a genetic model of obesity and insulin resistance by crossing the AdipoIL-6<sup>-/-</sup> mice with leptin-deficient (<i>ob/ob</i>) mice.
Higher rates of esophageal cancer cases may be attributed to lifestyle factors such as: diet, obesity, alcohol and tobacco use.Moreover, the presence of oral <i>P. gingivalis</i> and <i>T. forsythia</i> has been found to be associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer.Our review describes the role of <i>P. gingivalis</i> and <i>T. forsythia</i> in signaling pathways responsible for cancer development.It has been shown that <i>T. forsythia</i> may induce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-6 by CD4 + T helper cells and TNF-α.Moreover, gingipain K produced by <i>P. gingivalis,</i> affects hosts immune system by degradation of immunoglobulins and complement system (C3 and C5 components).
Maternal obesity is associated with alteration of immunological factors concentrations in the human milk, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, IL-6, insulin, TNF-Alpha, ghrelin, adiponectin, and obestatin.
In 209 patients with obesity a multiple regression model was computed with REE as the dependent variable and sex, waist, FFM, FM, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA), interleukin-6 and High Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol as the independent variables.
The results were positively correlated in case of IL-6 with the body mass index the general accepted method used for the assessment of the obesity or overweight degree The determination of these markers in saliva samples by a stochastic method proved the utility within the medical examination for a better evaluation of the health status in obesity.
Our results suggest that macrophage-driven IL-6 bridges obesity and osteonecrosis and inhibition of IL-6 or depletion of macrophage may represent a therapeutic strategy for obesity-associated osteonecrosis.
Obesity and diet composition were both positively associated to pro-inflammatory biomarkers, CRP and IL1b; while diet composition shared with physical activity levels the correlation with IL6 (positive with energy, fat, carbohydrate and saturated fatty acid intake, and negative with cholesterol intake and average physical activity in boys), NGF and glucose (in both cases correlations were negative with diet composition and physical activity variables) (P < 0.05, in all cases).