We previously showed that naringenin, a citrus flavonoid, suppressed macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue by inhibiting monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in the progression phase to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity.
We conclude hypoxia or obesity induces release of inflammatory TNFα and MCP-1 from mice primary adipocytes but the two environmental conditions do not synergize to worsen macrophage signal transduction or insulin responsiveness.
Combined treatment of PA and LPS in RAW264.7 cells mimics the situation of diabetes with obesity that has higher level of PA and LPS, MAPK/TLR4/ MCP-1 might be potential therapeutic targets for diabetes with obesity.
Moreover, the level of urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein‑1 (u‑MCP‑1) was increased in the participants with obesity, and it was positively correlated with free fatty acid (FFA), UACR and u‑NGAL.
We analysed the levels of cytokines (tumour necrosis factor [TNF] α and interleukins [ILs] 1β, 4, 6 and 10), chemokines (stromal cell derived factor 1α, monocyte chemoattract protein [MCP] 1, eotaxin and fractalkine) and growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, pro-fibrotic platelet-derived growth factor [PDGF-BB] and insulin-like growth factor 1) in serum of prepubertal children with obesity (61 girls/59 boys, 50% IR and 50% non-IR) and 32 controls.
In terms of therapeutic applications, implant of scaffolds designed to release resveratrol into the visceral fat decreases MCP-1 expression in mice fed a high fat diet, a molecule that drives both local and systemic inflammation during obesity.
To further understand the characteristics of inflammation in the ovaries of obese women we analysed a panel of cytokines (IL6, IL10 and TNFα), adipokines (adiponectin, leptin and monocyte chemotactic factor 1 (MCP-1)) and acute phase proteins (C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and sICAM-1) in the ovarian follicular fluid obtained at oocyte aspiration from women (n = 48) who were lean, overweight or obese.
It is not known to what extent inflammation precedes the development of obesity.MethodsIn a cohort of 882 infants born before 28 weeks of gestation, we examined relationships between concentrations of 25 inflammation-related proteins in blood obtained during the first two postnatal weeks and body mass index at 2 years of age.ResultsAmong children delivered for spontaneous indications (n=734), obesity was associated with elevated concentrations of four proteins (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-R1, and MCP-1) on the first postnatal day; one protein (IL-6) on postnatal day 7; and two proteins (ICAM-3 and VEGF-R1) on postnatal day 14.
Overall, our findings support a model in which elevated FFAs in obesity create a milieu for TNF-α to trigger CCL2 production via the TLR4/TRIF/IRF3 signaling cascade, representing a potential contribution of FFAs to metabolic inflammation.
This article underlines the significance and involvement of the chemokine MCP-1 in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and diabetic complications, with an emphasis on the role of plant metabolites in the regulation of this chemokine and thus the role in the prevention or therapy of diabetes.
OVX and HF significantly reduced plasma levels of nitrate/nitrite (NOx), and mice developed obesity with visceral hypertrophic adipocytes and increased transcriptional levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, TNF-α, and IL-6 in visceral fat tissues.
The visceral adipose tissue expression levels of APN in normal group was greater than those in obesity and T2DM groups, and visceral adipose tissue expression levels of TNF-α and MCP-1 in normal group were lower than those in obesity and T2DM groups (P < 0.01).
Insulin-stimulated total glucose disposal (TGD), plasma FFA species, muscle insulin signalling, IBα protein, c-Jun phosphorylation, inflammatory gene (toll-like receptor 4 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1) expression, and ceramide and diacylglycerol (DAG) content were measured in muscle from a group of obese and T2DM subjects before and after administration of the antilipolytic drug acipimox for 7 days, and the results were compared to lean individuals.
Among the adipokines analyzed, the most notable finding was a 15% lower level of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in HT users, particularly with respect to its suggested mediator role between obesity and insulin resistance.
The data provide important mechanistic information on the cause of hepatic injury in obese-HCV subjects including: (1) enhanced T helper-1 cytokine response patterns-to promote hepatocellular injury; (2) increased expression of the chemokines IP-10 and MCP-1 at both the mRNA and protein levels-to enhance inflammatory cell recruitment; (3) differing localisation of these chemokines within the liver of obese-HCV versus lean-HCV subjects-implying different inducing stimuli and; (4) increased CD3 expression in the liver of obese-HCV subjects-concordant with the increased expression of T cell chemoattractants.