Our finding suggests a compensatory genetic interaction between TLR2 and TLR4 in the context of prenatal inflammatory stimulation, and this interaction likely contributes to the prenatal inflammation-induced hyperlipidemia and lipid overload-induced obesity, thus providing a potential mechanism for the fetal origin of adult metabolic diseases.
These data suggest that GTE protects against diet-induced obesity consistent with a mechanism involving the gut-adipose axis that limits endotoxin translocation and consequent adipose TLR4/NFκB inflammation by improving gut barrier function.
In PCOS, lipid-induced LPS-mediated inflammation through TLR-4 is associated with obesity and worsened by PCOS, whereas lipid-induced increases in SOCS-3 may represent an obesity-independent, TNFα-mediated mechanism of IR.
Collectively, we demonstrated that inflammatory response to obesity, such as TLR4 and NLRP3 inflammasome activation as well as IL-1β secretion, attenuates β3-adrenoreceptor-induced beige adipocyte formation via oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.
Overall, our findings support a model in which elevated FFAs in obesity create a milieu for TNF-α to trigger CCL2 production via the TLR4/TRIF/IRF3 signaling cascade, representing a potential contribution of FFAs to metabolic inflammation.
The innate immune Toll-like receptors (TLR) such as TLR2 and TLR4 have emerged as key players in metabolic inflammation; nonetheless, TLR10 expression in the adipose tissue and its significance in obesity/T2D remain unclear.
We investigated the effects of berberine on obesity and insulin resistance by examining the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α signaling pathway in livers of HFD-fed obese rats.
Obesity primes myeloid cell production from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and the downstream TIR domain-containing adapter protein-inducing interferon-β (TRIF)- and MyD88-mediated pathways regulate production of similar myeloid cells after lipopolysaccharide stimulation.