The present study aimed to investigate the mRNA expression of excitatory amino acid transporters 1-3 (EAATs) and the subunits of the NMDA (GluN1, GluN2a, and GluN2b) and AMPA (GluA1 and GluA2) glutamate receptors following status epilepticus in a rat lithium-pilocarpine model.
In the present study, we divided pilocarpine-induced SE Wistar rats into three main groups: the TAT-GluA2NT1-3-2 peptide group, the TAT-GluA2NT-scram peptide group, and the normal saline group, and injected different doses of peptides stereotaxically into the hippocampus of SE rats to investigate whether the GluA2/GAPDH interaction could be disrupted by our TAT-GluA2NT1-3-2 peptide and determine its most appropriate dose.
However, GluR2 mRNAs bearing the long 3'-UTRs were shifted from untranslating mRNP complexes to ribosome-containing complexes after SE, pointing to a selective translational derepression of GluR2 mRNA mediated by the long 3'UTR.
We also detected the expression of interleukin-1 receptor-associated protein kinases-1 (IRAK1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, which indicated the expression of IRAK1, TRAF6 and NF-κB p-p65/p65 increased in the brain of SE rats, and overexpression of miR-146a-5p could downregulate the expression of IRAK1, TRAF6, NF-κB p-p65/p65 and P-gp.
H19 overexpression induced the activation of astrocytes and microglia and the release of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) in the hippocampus, whereas H19 knockdown inhibited status epilepticus-induced glial cell activation.
The present pilot study aims to investigate whether liraglutide alleviates the chronic inflammation response and mitochondrial stress induced by SE in the lithium-pilocarpine animal model.We found that treatment with 25nmol/kg. i.p. once-daily after the induction of SE for 7 days reduced chronic inflammation as shown by reduced numbers of activated microglia and astrocytes, and reduced levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß in the hippocampus.
The impact of TLR3 deficiency on SE was assessed using separate cohorts of mice regarding EEG activity, seizure progression, hippocampal microglial distribution, and expression of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and interferon (IFN)β.
In this study, we investigated the dynamic expression patterns of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and microRNA-155 (miR-155) in the hippocampi of an immature rat model of status epilepticus (SE) and children with MTLE.
These findings suggest that SE-induced aberrant mitochondrial dynamics may be involved in translocation of active caspase-3 and HMGB1 into mitochondria, which regulate neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, respectively.
Although KA did not induce neuronal death, this study provides morphological and biochemical evidence that status epilepticus induced by KA activates caspase-3 in mossy fibers and induces autophagy in the C57BL/6 hippocampus.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gamma-Glutamylcysteine Ethyl Ester (GCEE) on the levels of GSH, caspase-3 activity, DNA damage and the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and p53 mRNAs in rat hippocampus after status epilepticus (SE) induced by systemic kainic acid (KA).