To overcome this problem, we developed a non-invasive intranasal delivery system, chitosan coated niosomes with entrapped pentamidine (inPentasomes), in the attempt to provide a novel pharmacological approach to ameliorate parkinsonism induced by subchronic MPTP administration in C57BL-6 J mice. inPentasomes, prepared by evaporation method was administered daily by intranasal route in subchronic MPTP-intoxicated rodents and resulted in a dose-dependent manner (0.001-0.004 mg/kg) capable for a significant Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) positive neuronal density rescue in both striatum and substantia nigra of parkinsonian mice.
The assembly of tau protein into abnormal filaments and brain cell degeneration are characteristic of a number of human neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17.
Tau protein is found to be aggregated and hyperphosphorylated (p-tau) in many neurologic disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD) and related parkinsonisms, Alzheimer disease, traumatic brain injury, and even in normal aging.
Genetic atypical Parkinson's disease (PD) describes monogenic forms of PD that resemble idiopathic PD but feature prominent atypical clinical signs and symptoms and can be sub-grouped into i) atypical monogenic forms caused by mutations in the ATP13A2, DNAJC6, FBXO7, SYNJ1, VPS13C, and DCTN genes; ii) monogenic PD more closely resembling idiopathic PD, but associated with atypical features in at least a subset of cases (SNCA-, LRRK2-, VPS35-, Parkin-, PINK1-, and DJ-1-linked PD; iii) carriers of mutations in genes that are usually associated with other movement disorders but may present with parkinsonism, such as dopa-responsive dystonia.
Carbazole and 2-arylquinoline binding was only observed in cases with Alzheimer's disease and one case with frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 exhibiting a R406WMAPT mutation.
The aggregation of NFTs, the abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, and the interaction between tau and alpha-synuclein may all contribute to the cell death and poor axonal transport observed in PD and Parkinsonism.
The first mutations associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) were found in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene on chromosome 17 in families with frontotemporal degeneration and parkinsonism (FTDP-17).
Since TH protein has been shown to be involved in the dopamine-producing pathway in previous studies, our results indicate the possibility that manganese-mediated reduction of TH expression and phosphorylation via decreased expression of c-RET protein in neural cells is involved in parkinsonism induced by manganese.
In an in vivo MPTP-induced animal model of Parkinson's disease, oral administration of compound 5b showed neuroprotection of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons as revealed by tyrosine hydroxylase staining and prevention of MPTP-induced parkinsonism as revealed by motor behavioral assay of vertical grid test.