The p-GSK3β (Ser9) protein level in Caki-2 cells was significantly down-regulated, while the DNA fragmentation rate increased after treatment with 5 μM DAC at 96 h. Our data show that sFRP2 functions as a tumor suppressor gene in RCC and that its restoration may offer a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of RCC.
Since these levels were lower than expected for RCC, we asked whether the metastases possessed a phenotype different from primary RCC and examined MDR-1 expression in 5 paired cell lines derived from primary and metastatic RCC.
Moreover, treatment of cultures with bleomycin or topotecan, a novel topoisomerase I inhibitor with little substrate affinity for P-glycoprotein, led to induction of apoptosis and significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent reduction of cell number in all RCC cell lines.
Multidrug resistance in human renal cell carcinoma is mainly caused by expression of the MDR1 gene and is characterized by a broad spectrum cross resistance to many natural product chemotherapeutic agents.
Stage adjusted disease specific survival rate, according to MDR-1 expression and therapy in patients affected by RCC in early stage (stage I), has revealed that the group of patients with high MDR-1 expression and without adjuvant therapy showed poor survival (p < 0.05).
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) ranks among the most chemoresistant tumors, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) predominates multidrug resistance mechanisms by reducing the accumulation of intracellular chemotherapy drugs such as vinblastine (VBL), which is considered the most effective chemotherapeutic agent for this neoplasia.
Data mining correlated elevated PITX2 in >30% of cancers analyzed, maximally in colon (4.4-fold), confirmed in co-immunostaining of colon and renal cancer microarrays wherein ABCB1 concomitantly increased in RCC.
Enforced expression of the connexin (Cx) 32 gene, a member of the gap junction gene family and a tumor suppressor gene in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC), enhanced vinblastine (VBL)-induced cytotoxicity in RCC cells due to suppression of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) expression.
Multidrug resistance (MDR) in a variety of human tumors such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is thought to be caused by expression of the mdr1 gene and may be reversed by applying chemosensitizers such as Dexverapamil that inhibit the mdr1 gene product P-glycoprotein.
Potential implications of this reduced mechanism of detoxification will be shown for three selected diseases: (1) association of low intestinal P-glycoprotein expression with development of inflammatory bowel disease; (2) implications for disease risk and therapeutic outcome of HIV; and (3) consequences of this mutation for renal P-glycoprotein expression and risk of renal cell carcinoma.
All the N276 compounds also remarkably enhanced the sensitivity to VBL and DXR in both MDR1- and MRP-overexpressing renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell line (NKK1), whereas they showed no potentiation of these anticancer agents in an RCC cell line (KPK1) expressing neither MDR1 nor MRP.
The expression of eight key proteins related to hypoxia (CAIX, HIF1A, HIF2A, VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3 and PDGFRB) and P-glycoprotein were assessed by immunohistochemistry in 67 primary ccRCC samples from prospectively recruited patients treated with first-line sunitinib.