We have subjected 41 renal tumors, including VHL gene mutation-negative clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), papillary RCC, and chromophobe RCC, to immunohistochemistry of transcription factor E3 (TFE3) and TFEB.
To assess the role of elongin B/C, Rbx1 and HIF-1alpha in RCC tumorigenesis we (a) mapped the genes to chromosomes 8q(cen) (elongin C), 16p13.3 (elongin B) and 22q11.2 (Rbx1) by FISH, monochromosomal somatic cell hybrid panel screening and in silico GenBank homology searching; (b) determined the genomic organisation of elongin C (by direct sequencing of PAC clones), Rbx1 and elongin B (by GenBank homology searching); and (c) performed mutation analysis of exons comprising the coding regions of elongins B, C and Rbx1 and the oxygen-dependent degradation domain of HIF-1alpha by SSCP screening and direct sequencing in 35 sporadic clear cell RCC samples without VHL gene inactivation and in 13 individuals with familial non-VHL clear cell RCC.
In this study, we identified mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL) in patients with sporadic clear cell renal carcinoma and analyzed the relationship between these VHL mutations and VHL protein (pVHL) expression levels.
Clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC) is due to loss of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene and at least one out of three chromatin regulating genes BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1), Polybromo-1 (PBRM1) and Set domain-containing 2 (SETD2).
The characterization of the VHL gene should ultimately have important implications not only for patients with VHL, but also for a much larger number of cancer patients in the general population, afflicted with the sporadic counterparts of VHL-associated tumor types, such as renal cell carcinoma.
As an application of this resource, we discovered RCC GCN edges and modules that were associated with genetic lesions in known RCC driver genes, including VHL, a common initiating clear cell RCC (ccRCC) genetic lesion, and PBRM1 and BAP1 which are early genetic lesions in the Braided Cancer River Model (BCRM).
The four most commonly mutated genes in RCC of clear-cell type (the most common type) are two-hit tumor suppressor genes, and they cluster in a 43-Mb region on chromosome 3p that is deleted in approximately 90% of tumors: VHL (mutated in ∼80%), PBRM1 (∼50%), BAP1 (∼15%), and SETD2 (∼15%).
Quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis of ccRCC with known VHL mutation status and normal matched tissues as well as RNA in situ hybridization on a tissue microarray (TMA) confirmed a decrease of PTPRJ expression in more than 80% of ccRCCs, but in only 12% of papillary RCCs. ccRCC patients with no or reduced PTPRJ mRNA expression had a less favourable outcome than those with a normal expression status (p = 0.05).
Genetic changes underlying clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) include alterations in genes controlling cellular oxygen sensing (for example, VHL) and the maintenance of chromatin states (for example, PBRM1).
DNA and RNA from 13 standardized and seven non-standardized frozen and 12 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) clear cell renal cell carcinoma specimens (>9 years old) served to test the robustness of the WGA and WTA products by reidentifying von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene mutations known to exist in these samples.