Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome, a hereditary renal cancer syndrome caused by mutations in the folliculin (FLCN) gene, is characterized by the presence of fibrofolliculomas, pulmonary cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
In a search for potential synthetic-lethal targets for FLCN using a phosphatase siRNA library screening approach, we found that knockdown of SSH2 serine phosphatase (one of the three members of Slingshot family and previously implicated in actin reorganization) specifically induced Caspase3/7 activity in a dose-dependent manner (up to six-fold increase, 10 nM, 72 h) in two human FLCN-deficient cell lines (BHD-origin renal cell carcinoma UOK257 and thyroid carcinoma FTC133) but not in their folliculin expressing isogenic cell lines.
We describe here a 64-year-old man with a novel germline mutation in the FLCN gene who presented with 3 phenotypically distinct renal tumors in the same kidney, which were histologically classified as oncocytoma (1.4 cm), oncocytic papillary carcinoma (0.5 cm), and clear cell renal carcinoma (0.8 cm).
The BHD gene (also known as folliculin or FLCN) is the gene for Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, an autosomal-dominant genodermatosis associated with a hereditary form of chromophobe and oncocytic, hybrid RCC.
To develop a radiomics model with all-relevant imaging features from multiphasic computed tomography (CT) for differentiating clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) from non-ccRCC and to investigate the possible radiogenomics link between the imaging features and a key ccRCC driver gene-the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene mutation.
The last 30 years of research in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has revealed that the vast majority of RCC histologies share a recurrent pattern of mutations to metabolic genes, including VHL, MTOR, ELOC, TSC1/2, FH, SDH, and mitochondrial DNA.
Previously we have described that RWDD3 or RSUME (RWD domain-containing protein SUMO Enhancer) sumoylates and binds VHL protein and negatively regulates HIF degradation, leading to xenograft RCC tumor growth in mice.
The evolution patterns of ccRCC have great inter-patient heterogeneities, with del(3p) being regarded as the common earliest event followed by three early departure points: VHL and PBRM1 mutations, del(14q) and other somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) including amp(7), del(1p) and del(6q).
Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that the protein levels of HIF2A and VEGFA in tumor tissue may serve as independent prognostic factors in ccRCC. ccRCC patients with increased intratumoral HIF2A and VEGFA protein levels, and unaltered VHL protein levels, are not likely to benefit from sunitinib treatment following nephrectomy; however, this hypothesis requires verification by large‑scale replication studies.
As an application of this resource, we discovered RCC GCN edges and modules that were associated with genetic lesions in known RCC driver genes, including VHL, a common initiating clear cell RCC (ccRCC) genetic lesion, and PBRM1 and BAP1 which are early genetic lesions in the Braided Cancer River Model (BCRM).