Consistent with this discovery, maternal treatment with antioxidants minimizes cell death in the neuroepithelium and substantially ameliorates or prevents the pathogenesis of craniofacial anomalies in Tcof1(+/-) mice.
Interestingly however, chemical and genetic inhibition of p53 activity can block the wave of apoptosis and prevent craniofacial anomalies in Tcof1 mutant mice [Jones NC, Lynn ML, Gaudenz K, Sakai D, Aoto K, Rey JP, et al.
Here we show that inhibition of p53 prevents cyclin G1-driven apoptotic elimination of neural crest cells while rescuing the craniofacial abnormalities associated with mutations in Tcof1 and extending life span.
Therefore, Tcof1/Treacle is a unique spatiotemporal regulator of ribosome biogenesis, a deficiency that disrupts neural crest cell formation and proliferation, causing the hypoplasia characteristic of TCS craniofacial anomalies.
SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by significant neurodevelopmental disabilities with limited to absent speech, behavioral issues, and craniofacial anomalies.
The SATB2-associated syndrome is a recently described syndrome characterized by developmental delay/intellectual disability with absent or limited speech development, craniofacial abnormalities, behavioral problems, dysmorphic features, and palatal and dental abnormalities.
Mandibuloacral dysplasia type A (MADA) is a rare laminopathy characterized by growth retardation, craniofacial anomalies, bone resorption at specific sites including clavicles, phalanges and mandibula, mottled cutaneous pigmentation, skin rigidity, partial lipodystrophy, and insulin resistance.
The TBX1 gene is considered to be the major candidate gene for the main features in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, including congenital heart malformations, (para)thyroid hypoplasia, and craniofacial abnormalities.
GCPS is mainly characterised by craniofacial abnormalities (macrocephaly/prominent forehead, hypertelorism) and limb malformations, such as PPD-IV, syndactyly and postaxial polydactyly type A or B (PAPA/B).