GNAL mutations have been shown to cause adult-onset isolated dystonia, a disabling movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions causing twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures.
All affected members present with cognitive impairment and two of them with mild intermittent involuntary movements in association with the clinical hallmarks of SCA15 (gait ataxia, balance impairment, and dysarthria).
An expansion of glutamine repeats in the N-terminal domain of the huntingtin protein leads to Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative condition characterized by the presence of involuntary movements, dementia, and psychiatric disturbances.
Clinical features of de novo GRIN1 mutations include infantile involuntary movements, seizures, and hand stereotypies, suggesting that GRIN1 mutations cause encephalopathy resulting in seizures and movement disorders.
Genetic disruption of Nr4a1 in rat reduced neurotoxin-induced dopamine cell loss and l-Dopa-induced dyskinesia, whereas virally-driven striatal overexpression of Nr4a1 enhanced or partially restored involuntary movements induced by chronic l-Dopa in wild type and Nr4a1-deficient rats, respectively.
Here, we have identified 3 mutations in exon 7 of NTN1 in 2 unrelated families and 1 sporadic case with isolated congenital mirror movements (CMM), a disorder characterized by involuntary movements of one hand that mirror intentional movements of the opposite hand.
Humans with heterozygous mutations in the axon guidance receptor DCC display congenital mirror movements (MMs), which are involuntary movements of body parts, such as fingers, on one side of the body that mirror voluntary movement of the opposite side.
In addition, a recent clinical study demonstrated that a missense mutation in the SV2A gene caused intractable epilepsy with involuntary movements and developmental retardation, illustrating a causative role of SV2A dysfunction in epilepsy.