This study showed no difference over 16 weeks in vascular inflammation in patients treated with a tumor necrosis factor-α antagonist or placebo and a modest increase in vascular inflammation in carotids after 52 weeks of treatment with adalimumab.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of salidroside against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced vascular inflammation in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs), a specific cell type derived from coronary micro-vessels.
This was associated with increased neutrophilic airway inflammation, vascular permeability, myeloperoxidase activity in the lung with upregulated expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX2)/MCP-1/TNF-α in neutrophils and IL-17A in γδ T cells/lung.
We observed profound changes in mRNA levels for markers of tubular damage (Kim-1, NGAL) and regeneration (indirect marker of tubular injury, Ki-67), and tissue and vascular inflammation (IL-6, E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1) in kidneys of PHZ-treated mice, associated with ultrastructural signs of tubular injury.
Ten biomarkers were measured at baseline representing different sources of inflammation: vascular inflammation (pentraxin 3 and serum amyloid P), endothelial function (endothelin-1), metabolic function (adiponectin, resistin, and plasminogen activating inhibitor-1), oxidative stress (receptor for advanced glycation end products), and general inflammation (interleukin-6, interleukin-2, and interleukin-10).
SID suppressed the activity of cathepsin V and reversed the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α), adhesion and chemotaxis of leukocytes and vascular inflammation induced by l-homocysteine in vivo and in vitro.
These results strongly indicate that anti-inflammatory effects in TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells by acetylation are tightly linked to secreted APE1/Ref-1, which inhibits TNF-α binding to TNFR1 by reductive conformational change, with suggestion as an endogenous inhibitor of vascular inflammation.
Thus, in conclusion, these results indicate that IL-6 trans-signaling is an important mediator of inflammation, apoptosis and barrier disruptive effects in the retinal endothelial cells and inhibition of the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway using sgp130-Fc attenuates vascular inflammation and endothelial barrier disruption.
The hypertension and vascular endothelial dysfunction evoked by subpressor doses of angiotensin II (0.25 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup> ·day<sup>-1</sup> ) were studied, and vascular inflammation was quantified by flow cytometry and real-time PCR.
Kallistatin via its heparin-binding site inhibits vascular inflammation and oxidative stress by antagonizing TNF-<i>α</i>-induced NADPH oxidase activity, NF-<i>κ</i>B activation, and inflammatory gene expression in endothelial cells.