To help elucidate the role of calcineurin in vascular inflammation, we infected cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) with an adenovirus construct expressing a constitutively active mutant of calcineurin, and examined its effect on the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1).
Inducible heme oxygenase-1 and downstream proteins biliverdin reductase and p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase, were up-regulated, potentially contributing to phenotypic heterogeneity and absence of atherosclerosis in patients with sickle cell disease despite endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation.
Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) mediates the transendothelial migration of circulating leukocytes, a characteristic change in vascular inflammation leading to atherosclerotic plaque development.
We conducted variance-component linkage analyses of blood levels of four biomarkers of vascular inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1)] in 304 extended families from the Framingham Heart Study, using data from a 10cM genome scan.
These studies show that TLR4 signaling promotes a proinflammatory phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and suggest that VSMC may potentially play an active role in vascular inflammation via the release of chemokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and increased expression of TLR2.
These findings suggest that NADPH oxidase activation, mRNA stabilization, and MAPK signaling pathways play critical roles in LPS-enhanced TLR4 expression in HASMCs, which contributes to vascular inflammation and cardiovascular disorders.