Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by the presence of Philadelphia chromosome [t(9:22)] leading to the presence of pathognomonic fusion gene product, BCR-ABL1.
Identification of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase as a driver of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and successful application of small molecule inhibitors of the tyrosine kinases in the clinic have triggered the search for kinase dependent pathways in other Ph-ve MPNs.
RARS-T is a provisional entity in the MDS/MPN (myeloproliferative neoplasm) overlap syndromes, with diagnostic features of RARS, along with a platelet count ≥450 × 10(9)/L and large atypical megakaryocytes similar to those observed in BCR-ABL1 negative MPN.
Current data suggest that constitutively active JAK-STAT signaling plays a central role in the pathogenesis of BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), regardless of the specific underlying molecular abnormality.
To assess the presence of genetic imbalances in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), 38 patients with chronic eosinophilia were studied by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH): seven had chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML), BCR-ABL1 positive, nine patients had myeloproliferative neoplasia Ph- (MPN-Ph-), three had a myeloid neoplasm associated with a PDGFRA rearrangement, and the remaining two cases were Lymphoproliferative T neoplasms associated with eosinophilia.
In BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) several different tyrosine kinase fusion events have been described, most commonly involving the genes encoding the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) or beta (PDGFRB).
The majority of patients with BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) harbor mutations in JAK2 or MPL, which lead to constitutive activation of the JAK/STAT, PI3K and ERK signaling pathways.
Immediately after the annual scientific meeting of the American Society of Hematology (ASH), a select group of clinical and laboratory investigators in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) is summoned to a post-ASH conference on chronic myeloid leukemia and the BCR-ABL1-negative MPN.
JAK-STAT is an appealing but also problematic drug target in BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) - it is appealing because the majority of patients with MPN harbor gain-of-function JAK2 or MPL mutations - it is problematic because currently available JAK inhibitors do not distinguish between oncogenic and physiologic JAK-STAT activation.
The discovery of JAK2V617F and other JAK-STAT-activating mutations in BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) has led to the development of small-molecule ATP-mimetics that inhibit wild-type and mutant JAK.
Data on angiogenesis in the bone marrow of BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) patients suggest an increase of the microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, but relations to the JAK2-V617F status remain controversial.