The present study also establishes that G2019S mutation leads to a reduction in lysosomal pH and increased expression of the lysosomal ATPase ATP13A2, a gene linked to a parkinsonian syndrome (Kufor-Rakeb syndrome), in brain samples from mouse and human LRRK2G2019S carriers.
It is also clear that LRRK2 interacts, either physically or genetically, with several other important proteins implicated in PD, suggesting that LRRK2 may be a central player in the pathways that underlie parkinsonism.
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutation is the most common cause of genetic-related parkinsonism and is usually associated with Lewy body pathology; however, tau, α-synuclein, and ubiquitin pathologies have also been reported.
In addition, we found that the proband and his mother carried the G2385R variant of the LRRK2, a strong risk factor for PD in Asians and the rare V1450I variant, although only the proband showed symptoms of parkinsonism.No mutations were found in parkin.
Twelve- to sixteen-month-old (G2019S) LRRK2 transgenic mice prepared by us displayed progressive degeneration of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopaminergic neurons and parkinsonism phenotypes of motor dysfunction.
These results not only represent the largest replication data affirming the association between PD and all the six genes/loci in Chinese, but for the first time suggest that multiple PD-associated genetic factors modify both the penetrance and AAO of LRRK2parkinsonism.
Low doses of paraquat and polyphenols prolong life span and locomotor activity in knock-down parkin Drosophila melanogaster exposed to oxidative stress stimuli: implication in autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism.
Our results further support that LRRK2 variants are an independent genetic risk factor for typical PD, but BDNF variants can greatly increase LRRK2-induced risk for patients with an onset age of older than 60 indicating an additive effect between the 2 genes, which might aid in studying the mechanism underlying LRRK2parkinsonism and developing potential therapeutic strategies.
Our report adds evidence that patients with LRRK2 monogenetic Parkinsonism are well suited candidates for DBS treatment and may indicate a potential genetic predictor for positive long-term effect of STN-DBS treatment.