To establish a reliable and appropriate in vivo model of aggressive human B-cell leukemia and lymphoma we xenotransplanted four p53-mutated cell lines and one ATM-mutated cell line into immunodeficient NOD/SCID IL2Rγ-null mice.
Although EμCyclinD1 is not sufficient to inducelymphomas, EμCyclinD1 accelerates the kinetics and increases the incidence of clonal lymphomas in ATM-deficient B-cells and skews the lymphomas toward pre-GC-derived small lymphocytic neoplasms, sharing morphological features of human MCL.
We hypothesize that ATM function is slightly attenuated by some variants, which could reduce double-stranded break repair capacity, contributing to the occurrence of translocations and subsequent lymphomas.
Inherited biallelic mutations of the ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) gene cause ataxia-telangiectasia, a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with a high incidence of childhood leukaemias and lymphomas, suggesting that ATM gene alterations may be involved in lymphomagenesis.
The association between mutation of the ATM gene and a high incidence of lymphoid malignancy in patients with AT, together with the development of lymphoma in Atm deficient mice, supports the proposal that inactivation of the ATM gene may be of importance in the pathogenesis of sporadic lymphoid malignancy.
A hemizygous ATM deletion was seen in 44% to 88% of the interphase cells in 15 cases (11.1%); four patients had an indolent lymphoma (follicular center cell lymphoma), and 11 patients had an aggressive lymphoma (five mantle-cell lymphomas [MCLs] and six diffuse large-cell lymphomas).
To investigate a potential pathogenic role of ATM in B-cell tumorigenesis, we performed mutation analysis of ATM in 29 malignant lymphomas of B-cell origin (B-CLL = 27; mantle cell lymphoma, [MCL] = 2).
The ATM gene deficient in ataxia-telangiectasia, a recessive multisystem disease associated with a high risk of lymphomas and leukemias, was found previously to be inactivated in a rare sporadic malignancy, T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), which is often associated with cytogenetic aberrations of chromosome 14.
While ATM plays a major role in signaling the p53 response to DNA strand break damage, Atm-/- p53(-/-) mice develop lymphomas earlier than Atm-/- or p53(-/-) mice, indicating that mutations in these two genes lead to synergy in tumorigenesis.